Index to Knowledge Representation

This web page contains an index to the book Knowledge Representation by John F. Sowa. It consists of an index of names, an index of subjects, and a list of special symbols. All page numbers refer to the printed edition. Names and subjects displayed in blue have hypertext links to web pages that contain further information about the corresponding persons and topics. Please send any additions or corrections to those links to John Sowa.

Names:    A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z.

Subjects:  A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z.


Name Index

A

Alchourrón, Carlos
388
Allen, James F.
114
Amarel, Saul
416, 459
Anderson, Alan Ross
290
Apel, Karl-Otto
66
Apt, Krzysztof R.
383
Aquinas, Thomas, St.
333
Arieti, Silvano
66, 67
Aristotle
1-2, 4, 6, 9, 12-13, 19, 26, 40, 49, 51, 55-58, 63-64, 67, 91, 98, 110, 114, 116, 143, 153, 178, 192-193, 195, 265, 270, 287, 311, 331, 333, 337, 343, 345, 356, 357, 361, 384
Augustine, St.
206, 227
Avicenna (Ibn Sina)
261

B

Badler, Norman I.
333, 335
Bartlett, Frederic C.
144
Barwise, Jon
285, 287, 310
Belnap, Nuel D.
290
Bergson, Henri
114, 116
Bernays, Paul
10
Beth, Evert
301, 462
Blair, Howard A.
383
Bobrow, Daniel
145
Bogart, Humphrey
179
Bohr, Niels
268, 388
Booch, Grady
436
Boole, George
8-9, 299
Borges, Jorge Luis
386
Borgo, Stefano
121
Born, Max
118, 263
Brachman, Ronald
7, 151-154, 187
Bratman, Michael
337, 338
Brentano, Franz
56-57, 60-62, 64
Brooks, Rodney
187, 331, 333
Brouwer, L. E. J.
102
Buchanan, Bruce G.
200
Bunt, Harry
103
Burke, Edmund
513
Burnstine, Donald
451

C

Cantor, Georg
100-104
Carnap, Rudolf
42, 342, 537
Carriero, Nicholas
239
Casati, Roberto
129
Ceccato, Silvio
207
Chamberlin, Don
166
Chandrasekaran, B.
369
Chen, Peter P.
423
Chomsky, Noam
293
Church, Alonzo
22, 480
Cicero, Marcus Tullius
2
Cohen, Philip R.
337
Cohn, Anthony
123, 374
Colmerauer, Alain
157
Confucius
56
Craik, Kenneth
364
Cyre, Walling
141

D

Dahl, Ole-Johan
171
Davidson, Donald
206
Davis, Randall
134
Devlin, Keith
126, 288, 313
Dick, Judith
507
Dijkstra, Edsger W.
230, 522
Dinsmore, John
400
Doyle, Jon
376, 381
Dreyfus, Hubert
400
Dunn, J. Michael
311

E

Eco, Umberto
66
Eddington, Arthur Stanley
117
Einstein, Albert
117
Elkan, Charles
372
Ellis, Gerard
329
Empedocles
123
Etherington, David
381
Euclid
93, 94, 110, 112

F

Faggin, Federico
256
Fahlman, Scott
224, 381
Fellbaum, Christiane
412
Fikes, Richard E.
25, 153, 247, 251
Flores, Fernando
401
Fraenkel, Adolf
101
Frege, Gottlob
9-11, 13, 18-19, 40, 43-44, 47, 192-193, 195, 352
Frijda, Nico H.
330, 332
Frost, Robert
348, 349
Fuchs, Norbert
457

G

Ganter, Bernhard
74
Gärdenfors, Peter
388
Gautama Buddha
56
Geertz, Clifford
355
Gelernter, David
237, 239
Genesereth, Michael R.
25
Gentzen, Gerhard
301, 307
Georgeff, Michael
338
Gergely, Tamás
42, 46
Giarratano, Joseph
199
Ginsberg, Matthew
338
Glasgow, Janice
399
Gödel, Kurt
101, 298
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von
178
Goldstein, Ira P.
145
Goldstine, Herman H.
218, 431
Goodman, Nelson
102, 106
Gray, J. Glenn
66
Green, Cordell
246
Grice, Paul
282
Grosof, Benjamin
381, 382, 405
Gruber, Thomas R.
145
Grünwald, Peter
253
Guarino, Nicola
121
Guha, R. V.
54, 66, 97, 184, 187, 287, 375, 444

H

Haack, Susan
371
Halpin, T. A.
79, 423
Hamlyn, D. W.
333
Hamming, Richard
408
Hanks, Steve
249
Hansen, Hans Robert
438
Hayes, Patrick J.
114, 145, 187, 247, 353
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich
59-60, 67
Heidegger, Martin
65-66, 400, 401
Hendrix, Gary
279
Heraclitus
55-56, 63, 67-69, 71, 90, 267, 270, 361
Hewitt, Carl
157, 330
Hilbert, David
94, 101
Hintikka, Jaakko
310
Hoare, C. A. R.
221
Hobbs, Jerry
122
Husserl, Edmund
62-63, 65, 68, 88, 129

I

Ibn Taymiyya, Taqi al-Din
356-358

J

Jacobson, Ivar
436
James, William
265, 284, 287, 288, 342
Jennings, Nicholas
330
Jensen, Kurt
235
John the Evangelist
56, 542

K

Kamp, Hans
13, 278, 517
Kant, Immanuel
14, 57-61, 64, 66-67, 132, 144, 360-361, 363
Karigane
339
Karp, Peter
145
Katz, Jerrold J.
449
Konolige, Kurt
338
Kowalski, Robert
29, 157, 248, 338
Kripke, Saul
284, 308-309
Kronecker, Leopold
102
Kuipers, Benjamin J.
253

L

Lakoff, George
411
Lambert, Karel
384
Langford, C. H.
27
Lao-Tzu
56
Lehmann, Fritz
374
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm
6-8, 11, 43, 48, 69, 73, 134, 143, 215, 247-248, 250, 292, 307-309, 329, 378, 408, 409, 492
Lenat, Douglas
54, 66, 97, 109, 184, 187, 294, 375, 412, 444
Leonard, H. S.
106
Les`niewski, Stanisl`aw
103-106, 127
Levesque, Hector
149, 153, 337, 338
Levin, Beth
447
Levi, Isaac
388
Lewis, Clarence Irving
26, 27, 308
Lindenbaum, Adolf
96
L`ukasiewicz, Jan
364, 366
Lull, Ramon
4-7, 67, 240

M

MacGregor, Robert
155
Maida, Anthony
293
Makinson, David
388
Malcolm, Norman
195
Manzano, María
42
Marcus, Ruth Barcan
27
Masolo, Claudio
121
McCarthy, John
42, 187, 245-247, 249, 286-287, 298, 314, 377-378, 416, 444, 460
McDermott, Drew
152, 168, 249, 376
Miller, George A.
412
Mills, Don Harper
346
Mill, John Stuart
362, 363
Minsky, Marvin
144-145, 151, 364, 392
Moffat, David
330, 332
Montague, Richard
284, 342, 526, 537
Moore, Robert C.
211, 379
Moravcsik, Julius
507
Morris, Charles
395
Mühlbacher, Robert
438

N

NCITS T2 committee
25, 424, 513
Neumann, Gustaf
438
Newell, Allen
144, 157
Newton, Isaac
6, 215, 232, 262, 359, 388
Nijssen, G. M.
79, 423
Nilsson, Nils
247, 251
Nixon, Richard
349, 367, 372, 380, 391, 406
Nussbaum, Martha
333
Nygaard, Kristen
171

O

Ockham, William of
78
Ogden, Charles Kay
192
Opus, Ronald
347, 542-543

P

Parsons, Terence
207
Partee, Barbara Hall
50
Pascal, Blaise
8, 352
Peano, Giuseppe
11, 19
Pearl, Judea
253, 261, 365
Peirce, Charles Sanders
1, 8-11, 18-19, 23, 26, 28, 47, 51, 60-68, 75, 79, 81, 88, 96, 100, 192-193, 195, 265, 267, 275-277, 279, 285, 288-289, 292, 294-297, 299-300, 303, 307-308, 337, 343, 348, 372, 389-390, 394-396, 398-402, 488, 492, 528, 540-541
Pereira, Fernando
52, 159
Perry, John
285, 287, 310
Peter of Spain (Petrus Hispanus)
4, 153
Petri, Carl Adam
217
Petrie, Charles J.
53
Petroski, Henry
403
Philo of Alexandria
542
Plato
1, 55-56, 63-64, 89-90, 270, 356, 384
Pope John XXI
see Peter of Spain
Porphyry
4
Przymusinski, Teodor
379
Ptolemy
356, 358
Pustejovsky, James
507
Putnam, Hilary
333

Q

Quillian, M. Ross
207, 224
Quine, Willard Van Orman
41, 42, 51, 67, 90, 102, 309, 342, 343, 496

R

Ramackers, Guus
438, 465
Rao, Anand
338
Rapaport, William
293
Reichenbach, Hans
340
Reich, Barry D.
333, 335
Reiter, Ray
338, 376-379, 381
Reyle, Uwe
278
Richards, Ivor Armstrong
192
Rieger, Chuck
253
Riley, Gary
199
Roberts, Don D.
297
Roberts, R. Bruce
145
Robinson, J. Alan
301, 306
Rosenberg, Duska
126
Rumbaugh, James
436
Ruspini, Enrique
365
Russell, Bertrand
11, 13, 28, 41, 59, 63, 100, 102, 110, 295, 352, 359, 475

S

Saint-Exupéry, Antoine de
61
Sandewall, Erik
216-217, 239, 262
Saussure, Ferdinand de
394, 395
Schank, Roger C.
66, 207, 293
Schmolze, James G.
152
Schoppers, Marcel
338
Shrobe, Howard
134
Schröder, Ernst
11, 28, 62
Schwitter, Rolf
457
Searle, John
79, 80, 398, 399
Selz, Otto
144
Sextus Empiricus
356, 358-359
Shannon, Claude
68, 117
Shapiro, Stuart C.
293
Shortliffe, Edward H.
157, 200, 365, 367, 368
Shusai, Honinbo
339
Simon, Herbert A.
144, 157, 196, 241, 248
Simons, Peter
118
Slagle, James
140
Smith, Brian Cantwell
363-364
Smith, Benjamin E.
492
Socrates
1, 351, 356
Somers, Harold
506
Sowa, John F.
23, 188, 507
Spivey, J. M.
436
Steele, Thomas
420
Sussman, Gerald
168
Szolovits, Peter
134

T

Talmy, Leonard
123
Tarski, Alfred
40, 106, 110-116, 121, 128-129, 316, 318, 384
Tesler, Lawrence G.
207
Thomason, Rich
381
Thoreau, Henry David
408, 409
Touretzky, David
381
Troelstra, Anne Sjerp
254
Turing, Alan
466

U

Úry, Tamás
42, 46

V

van Emden, Maarten
157
Van Gelder, Allen
383
Varzi, Achille
129
Velardi, Paola
181
Vendler, Zeno
447
Voltaire (Francois-Marie Arouet)
309
von Neumann, John
101-102, 104, 218, 431

W

Waismann, Friedrich
361, 363
Walker, Adrian
160, 200, 383, 535, 545
Warren, David H. D.
52, 159
Weber, Bonnie L.
333, 335
Whewell, William
361, 363
Whitehead, Alfred North
11, 28, 41, 63-69, 71-72, 75, 79, 103, 110, 114, 129, 206, 263, 265, 267, 270-271, 348-349, 359, 373, 467, 474
Wierzbicka, Anna
123
Wille, Rudolf
74
Winograd, Terry
145, 157, 171, 200, 401
Wintraecken, J. J.
423
Wittgenstein, Ludwig
101, 195, 350, 361, 363, 400
Woods, William A.
152-153
Wooldridge, Michael
330
Wright, J. R.
154

Y

Yokoi, Toshio
412

Z

Zachman, John
188, 190
Zadeh, Lotfi
365, 366-368, 372
Zeno of Elea
116
Zermelo, Ernst
101


Subject Index

A

abduction
245, 389-391
abnormality
377
absorption
472
absurd theory
387
absurdity
499
access-limited logic
19
see also linear logic
accessibility relation
308-312, 338
accompaniment relation (Accm)
503
accomplishment verb
447
achievement verb
447
activation
220
activity diagram
218, 235, 437
actual entity (ousia)
56, 63-64, 68, 73, 78, 87, 507
actuality
68-70, 72, 73, 88, 499, 502
acyclic graph
130
adjectives modifying nouns
81, 83
adverbial modifier
211
agenda
236
see also bulletin board
agent
autonomous 172, 330
with beliefs, desires, and intentions (BDI) 337-338
communication language for 330
rational 337-339
reactive 330, 333, 337-339
relation (Agnt) 35-36, 64-65, 182, 207, 272, 337, 508
psychology of 330-334
aggregate
104-110, 122, 127-128
AI complete problem
413
alignment
409, 411, 493-497
alternativity relation
310
ambiguity
177-178, 183, 204, 275, 286, 350-353, 365, 507
amount relation (Amt)
35, 503
analog control system
370-371
analogy
386
antisymmetry
96
appetite (epithymia)
332-333, 337
argument relation (Arg)
503
Aristotle's four causes (aitia)
507
final cause 265, 507
Ars Magna
4, 7
aspect
214
assertional reasoner (A-box)
7, 153-155
associativity
472
atom
103, 107, 470
attention
62, 79, 333, 356
attribute
accidental 126, 357
choice of 442-445, 531
default 380
metalevel 436
relation (Attr) 32, 71, 89, 93, 183, 207-209, 212, 433-434, 504-505
autoepistemic logic
379
automatic programming
413
axioms
Alchourrón, Gärdenfors, and Makinson's (AGM) 388
and categories 76-77
and ontologies 412
Born's 118, 264, 537
constraints as 93, 135
deductive closure 388, 389
Euclid's 93
for abstractions 76
for modal logic 26-27
for physical entities 76
for purpose 74, 273
for the U.S. government 109
for top-level categories 77, 498-502
Hilbert's 94
Tarski's 113
weaker and stronger 27

B

background knowledge
124, 133, 179-180, 204, 319-320, 347, 415
backtracking
157-160
Backus-Naur form (BNF)
430
backward chaining
138, 144, 156-157, 161, 165, 168, 171, 199-200
Barcan formula
27
base relation (Base)
504
because relation (Bcas)
504
Begriffsschrift
9-11, 19, 43-44
belief network
253
belief revision
see theory revision
beneficiary relation (Benf)
508
BIAIT
451, 464
bipartite graph
478
blackboard
see bulletin board
blank graph
476
blocks world
52
body part
349
Boolean
algebra 8-9, 12, 96, 100, 103
operator 9, 17, 19-20, 41, 43, 47, 100, 164, 187, 467-470
value 442-443
bound
concept 284
labels 487
occurrence 472
variable 471, 473
boundary
110-111, 119-121, 350-351
bowtie inconsistency
411
broader-narrower hierarchy
494
bulletin board
236, 239, 257-258, 262
manager 237, 257
business rules
451
but test
449-450

C

calculus of individuals
see mereology, Goodman's version
canonical form
292
cardinality
101
cascading update
166
case relation
see thematic role
case-based reasoning
358
catalog of individuals
487
categories
68, 97-98
abstract 68, 69, 71, 75, 76, 497, 498
Aristotle's 56, 84, 86-87, 98
Hegel's 59
Heidegger's 65
Husserl's 62
in Chat-80 52
in Cyc 54, 55
independent 63, 69, 72, 76, 124, 497, 499
Kant's 57, 66
lattice of 72, 74-75, 123
matrix of 75
mediating 69, 70, 72, 76, 124, 125, 497, 500, 502, 530
of emotions 66-67
of forms 90
Peirce's 60, 122, 126, 127
physical 68, 69, 71, 75, 497, 500
relative 69, 72, 76, 497, 500, 501
top level 497
Whitehead's 63, 64, 65, 68, 72, 83, 85, 87, 90
category theory
312
pullback 313
pushout 312-313
causal network
253, 261
causality
42, 55, 58-60, 76, 118, 216-218, 245-254, 261-263, 265, 337, 358, 398, 452, 504, 507, 528-529, 537, 543-544
certainty factor
365-367, 371, 375, 407
cessation
214
change
214-217, 221, 226, 231, 245, 247-248, 250, 256
delayed 216
immediate 216
characteristic relation (Chrc)
32-34, 49, 71, 93, 149, 193, 439-440, 503-505, 525-526
Chat-80
52, 53, 159
child
relation (Chld) 61, 84-88, 443, 462, 504, 547
stage of life 89, 269
Chinese room
398
choice space
243
Church-Rosser theorem
22
Classic
153-155
classification
68, 87-89
biological 32, 81, 361-362
by definitional logics 19, 153
depends on intention 79-81
of emotions 66-67
of liquids 353-354
of processes 213-214
of syllogisms 2
Medical Subject Headers (MeSH) 495
clause form
306
see also Horn-clause logic
CLIPS
136-139, 145, 157, 161, 165-166, 168, 171, 199, 203-205, 381, 383, 404
closed world
378
assumption 384
co-occurrence pattern
445, 447, 449
COBOL
169, 457-458
CODASYL Database Task Group
168
collection
97, 98, 100, 104, 108
collective noun
108, 127
collective plural
161, 210-211, 415
communication
316
addressed or associative 236
synchronous or asynchronous 236
commutative diagram
310, 312, 313
commutativity
472
comparand relation (Comp)
504
competence levels
187, 331, 339, 345
complementarity
267, 268
completeness
298
completion relation (Cmpl)
214-215, 447, 508
component
74, 86, 88-89, 124
composite
87, 88, 124
computational complexity
382
combinatorial explosion 6, 248
exponential time 155, 290, 292, 537, 541
linear time 291-292, 382
NP complete 261
polynomial time 155, 383, 536, 537
computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
419, 459
conceptual analysis
452
formal concept analysis 75
conceptual dependency theory
293
conceptual graph
476
actor 479
ANSI standard 25, 424
as metalanguage 38
concept 476
conceptual relation 476
measure contraction 35, 50
representing branches 221
representing context 173, 177
representing flow of control 221
representing grammar rule 430
representing loops 221
representing music 36, 254
representing names 33
representing nexus 85
representing nothing 128
representing parse tree 429
representing Petri net 219, 225, 254
representing plurals 161
representing procedures 221
representing recursive function 234
representing situations 207
representing syllogisms 24
representing time 215
representing triadic relations 125, 479
representing typed logic 24
translation to predicate calculus 208, 235
with Peirce's logic 23, 207
conceptual schema
189, 418
modeling facility (CSMF) 452, 455-459
conceptualization
69, 88
conditional relation (Cond)
234
consciousness
333
constraint
27, 240, 426
propagation 241
containment
85
content word
289, 455, 457, 518
context
173, 268, 275, 425, 485
actual 294, 299
classification of 296
co-nested 485
conflicting definitions 274
delimiter 275
dependence 368
Hendrix's version 279
immediately nested 485
in conceptual graphs 276
in discourse representation theory 279
intentional 295, 299
McCarthy's version 286-299, 310
modal 294, 299
model theory 320
negation depth 302, 305
opaque 269
outermost 487
Peirce's version 275-277
pragmatics 275
representing nexus 270
semantics 275
syntax 275
context-free grammar
281
contingent fact
27, 273, 296, 308
continuant
71-74, 76, 89-90, 118-120, 124, 212, 263, 494, 497, 499, 536-537
continuation
214
continuity
6, 16, 69, 103, 353, 363, 372
contraction
387
contrast
65, 68, 69
abstracted as relation 68
controlled natural language
see stylized natural language
conversational implicature
282, 284, 320, 341, 463
coreference
85
label 222, 280, 283, 340, 487
link 25, 31, 85, 213, 268, 283, 326, 340, 483, 486
set 486
correlational net
207
correlative
84, 86, 88, 124, 504, 505
counting
14-15, 36, 174, 202
count noun 98, 446, 462
counter 228-229, 256
definition of number by 92, 102
see also cardinality
course of events
337
critical path
227
cryptarithmetic problem
241
cut-and-paste theorem
303-304
Cyc
54-55, 66, 97, 294, 375, 412-413, 444, 458-459
C++
169, 173

D

DANTE
181-186
Dasein
66
database reorganization
439
dataflow diagram
233, 235
Datalog
383
De Morgan's laws
472
declarative language
223
deductive closure
97, 310, 312, 319, 388-389, 544
default
217, 451, 454-456, 463, 543-544
conflicting 380
in frames 375
inheritance of 381
prioritized 381, 392, 405-407
default logic
376-377, 379-382
defeasible reasoning
373
defining label
487
definition
129
constructive 104
explicit 92
extensional 99
implicit 93
intensional 99
methods of 4, 17, 24, 38, 92, 93
nonconstructive 102
recursive 93
definitional logic (also called description logic or terminological logic)
19, 155
Dempster-Shafer theory
369
denotation
98, 99, 100, 384
deontic logic
27, 45, 297, 315
dependence
63, 88
depiction
399
description
74, 315, 499
predicate (dscr) 29, 85, 87, 173-175, 208, 219, 222, 246, 269, 271, 285, 315-316, 318
descriptor
483
design levels
188
designator
483
desire (orexis)
332
destination relation (Dest)
284, 478, 482, 508
determinant
506
dicent sign
396
differentia
4, 7-8, 23, 43, 494, 498, 522
differential calculus
6
differential equation
216
discourse representation
theory (DRT) 278, 284, 517-518
structure (DRS) 13, 279, 299, 343, 458, 465-466, 517-520
disjoint
101, 106, 155
disjunction
467
distant past
114
distinction
55-57, 62, 65, 67-72, 75, 121, 124, 127, 129, 351, 353, 355, 357, 395, 400, 404
metalevel 61, 88, 112, 116, 122
see also gradation
distributed situation
250
distributive plural
210, 211, 415
distributivity
472
domain
51
domain expert
134
domain knowledge
454
dominant node
486
duration relation (Dur)
15-16, 177, 225, 508
dynamic logic
20, 42

E

Electronic Dictionary Research Institute (EDR)
412-413, 459, 495
effector relation (Efct)
509
egg-yolk diagram
374
elaboration tolerance
416, 444, 461
empty set
98, 100
EMYCIN
157
encapsulation
137, 169, 171-175, 272, 320-322
encoded literal
483
enterprise integration
53
see also ontology, integration
enterprise model
188, 189, 191
enterprise modeling
451, 465
entity
499
entity-relationship diagram
423, 431
entropy
117-119, 356
epistemic logic
122, 296
see also autoepistemic logic
epistemology
1
equivalence
467
equivalence relation
308
essence
88, 507
evaluation function
308
event
206, 214, 251
event semantics
206
event time
340
event variables
207
event-driven program
235
existential graph
23, 26, 276, 299-301, 476
as metalanguage 276
line of identity 276
oval enclosure 276
scroll 277
tincture 277, 294, 296, 299
existential quantifier
469
existential referent
483
existential-conjunctive logic
17, 38, 147, 149, 155, 156, 163, 204
exogenous event
see surprise
experiencer relation (Expr)
280-281, 443, 448-449, 485-486, 509-510
expert system
488
explanation
388
Express language
40
extension
95, 99, 469
extensionality
106
extensive abstraction
see mereology, Whitehead's version

F

facet
136, 146-147, 443
failure
214, 273
family resemblance
361
Figura Universalis
6
finite-state machine
217, 223, 231, 249-251, 258-259, 261
firewall
272, 321
first intentions
27
first-order logic (FOL)
18-20, 28-30, 40-42, 46, 50
first-order type
31-32
Firstness
60-69, 88, 122, 125, 126, 388-389, 395-396, 401, 499, 502, 529, 545
flow chart
218, 223, 231, 240-241, 431
fluent
215-217, 245-246, 262
independent 216
locally independent 216
locally ramified 216
ramified 216
structurally ramified 216
fork
231
form
68-70, 72-73, 499
formal parameter
18, 22, 24, 480-481
formalization
133, 455
formation rule
470
formula
470
forward chaining
138-139, 141, 156-157, 161, 165-166, 168, 171, 196, 198-201
frame
136, 144, 147
facet 136, 443
mapping to objects 170
reasoning with 154
representing existential-conjunctive logic 248
slot 136, 145, 147, 151, 375, 502
frame problem
143, 247-248, 316
Frame Representation Language (FRL)
145
free logic
384, 385
free occurrence
472
freedom
297, 315, 542
function word
457, 518
functional
language 235, 255
relation 233-235
fuzzy control system
369-372
fuzzy logic
20, 41, 364-366, 368, 373
criticism of 371
fuzzy set theory
366

G

games
baseball 119, 127
bridge 390-391
chess 141, 391, 413
football 405
go 265-267, 339, 537
go-moku 265-267, 339, 537
hide and seek 333-335, 345-346, 437
horse, bird, and muffin 402
leapfrog 460-461, 545-546
poker 391, 449
gavagai
343, 539
General Problem Solver (GPS)
157
generalization hierarchy
19, 94
generalized union
106
generate and test
6, 240
generic concept
152
Generic Frame Protocol (GFP)
145
genetic algorithm
245
genus
1, 4, 7, 23, 32, 494
goal
157, 158, 507
telos 265, 507
God
102, 250, 315, 333, 343, 352, 378, 542
government and binding
293
gradation
16, 69, 214, 353-354, 360, 364
see also distinction
grain
121
grammar rule
39, 181, 430, 452, 518
granularity
62, 77, 121-122, 130
actual 122
epistemic 122
intentional 122, 356
ground
192-193
see also symbol grounding

H

has test
84, 124, 131, 499, 501-505
having (echein)
56, 84
hedging term
366
heuristics
245, 541, 545
hierarchy
494, 497
of theories, see lattice of theories
of types 480, 487, 494
higher-order logic (HOL)
27, 41-42
history
74, 217, 220, 226-227, 499
hole
129-130
Horn-clause logic
19-20, 41, 171, 306, 382
host language
162
hotel reservation example
48, 130, 205, 263, 407, 466, 513
hypernym-hyponym
494

I

icon
396-400
idempotency
472
identity
71, 73, 236, 267-270, 316, 539
identity condition
120-121, 385, 494, 499-500
ignorance
348
imagery (phantasia)
331-333
mental 365, 399
immanent
506
import-export rules
272, 276, 283, 298, 299, 306, 326, 329, 541
modal 315
qualified 307, 316, 317, 343
independence
88
indeterminacy of translation
342-343, 539
index
396
indexical
207-208, 215, 221, 250-251, 274, 318, 325-326, 339, 343, 368, 396, 407, 476, 483, 489, 526, 541-542
general 279
name as 287
not available in predicate calculus 280
resolving 279, 281, 283, 284, 340
individual concept
152, 323
individual marker
483
induction
from particulars 245, 357-358
mathematical 28, 42, 353
inertia
250
inference engine
77, 112, 135, 138-139, 165, 199-200, 237, 381
infimum
97, 497
InfoBus
236
informal specifications
132
information retrieval
180, 412
Information System Architecture (ISA)
188, 190, 191, 193, 205
information theory
68, 117
inheritance
3, 4, 8, 13, 22, 23, 52, 146, 451, 473
in frames and syllogisms 150
multiple 70, 151
inhibit arc
261
initiation
214
initiator relation (Init)
506-510
inner domain
385
instance level
423, 434
instance variable
170
instantiation
64, 136, 154, 178, 430, 500
instrument relation (Inst)
161, 207-209, 440-441, 463-464, 507, 509
integer time
216
integrated system
419
integrity constraint
165, 423
intension
95, 99, 100, 469
intention
69-70, 72-73, 265, 272, 297, 307, 317, 321, 337, 347, 384, 499
intentionality
62, 79, 213-215
interoperability
494-495
interpretant
192, 395
interpretation
69, 79, 126, 133, 146, 213, 285, 342, 394, 400, 517, 547
interrogative mood
296, 315, 542
intersection
100, 107
intransitive verb
446
intuitionistic logic
19, 102

J

Java
169, 170-171, 173, 191, 204, 205
observable 171
observer 171
join
231
juncture
73, 499

K

KIF
25-26, 28, 33, 424-426, 428-430, 433-436, 453, 459, 489-492
ANSI standard 25, 424
KL-ONE
151-153, 155
knowledge acquisition
452
knowledge base
487-488, 494-495, 497
of conceptual graphs 487
knowledge engineering
132, 134
Knowledge Interchange Format
see KIF
knowledge levels
186
Knowledge Representation Language (KRL)
145
knowledge representation, principles of
see principles of knowledge representation
knowledge source
357, 392, 393, 396, 407
KRYPTON
153

L

lambda calculus
22-24, 32, 38
lambda expression
148, 154-155, 197, 207, 222, 235, 480, 503
lattice
7-8, 497, 527
of categories 72, 74-75, 123
of theories 94, 386
operations 96
lawgiver
311, 314-315
learning
75, 359-360, 363, 365, 394-400, 465, 496, 512
legisign
396, 398, 400
legislation
270, 313-314, 321, 343, 363
lexicon
495
library database (LibDB)
465, 515-520,
lifting rules
see import-export rules
Linda language
237, 239, 256-262, 265, 335, 337, 345, 534
operators 238, 258
linear logic
19-20, 254
LISP
235
literal
483
local symbol
323
location
34, 76-77, 120, 191, 198, 248, 498, 500, 531
relation (Loc) 481, 509
locator
483
see also uniform resource locator (URL)
locomotion
332
logic programming
138
logos
55-56, 64, 67, 69, 270, 331, 343, 345, 542
LOOM
155

M

machine translation
412
manner relation (Manr)
89, 207-212, 505
MARGIE
66
marker passing
224
mass and energy
76
mass noun
98, 101, 103
mathematical logic
6
matter
physical 67-68, 77, 90, 118-120, 129, 130
relation (Matr) 509
meaning
68, 100, 125
meaning triangle
125, 191-192
meaning-preserving translation
288-291, 293-294, 341-343, 539
means-ends analysis
248
measurement
29-30, 79, 263, 372-373, 379, 536-537
granularity of 121-122
of information 117
of relevance 391-392
of time 206, 227-229, 536
relation (Meas) 34-36, 49-50, 505
represented in frames 146-152
mediation
60-62, 64, 76, 79, 88, 125, 396, 528
medieval logic
2, 4, 19, 26-28, 40, 62, 67, 277
medium relation (Med)
509
memory
episodic 454
semantic 454
memory leak
231
memory organization packet (MOP)
293
mental process
195
mereology
98, 103-110, 113-115, 123
axioms for 104, 108
continuous 107
discrete 107
Goodman's version 107-109, 128
Les`niewski's version 103, 106
lumpy 107
nothing 105, 127-128, 530
Tarski's version 106
time-dependent 108, 118
Whitehead's version 103, 110
mereotopology
123
meronomy
494
message
325
passing 236-237, 239, 259, 265, 325
producer-consumer 229
metalanguage
20, 28-29, 38, 41, 49-50, 112-113, 420, 431
metalevel
137, 193, 253-254, 275, 298, 333, 429, 431, 434, 487, 489, 517, 526, 542, 544-545
stratified 316, 318, 320, 339
metametalanguage
29, 113
metametamodel
436
metamodel
431, 436
metaphor
1, 309, 312, 331
metaphysics
51, 56, 507
metatheorem
304
metatheory
113
metavariable
489
Microplanner
157-160, 163-164, 168-169, 200-203
microworld
52
minimalist grammar
293
modal auxiliary verb
26
modal logic
4, 7, 26, 27, 41, 42, 45
see also deontic logic and epistemic logic
System S4 45, 308, 312
System S5 45, 308, 312
System T 26-27, 45-46, 308, 312
mode
195
model structure
308
model theory
20, 40, 41, 384
model-based reasoning
248
modeling hypothesis
364
monad
element 91
instant 91, 114-116
point 91-94, 113
transition 91, 218, 225
monotonic logic
373, 378
morphology
81, 181, 183-184
multimedia dialog manager (MDM)
453, 458
multiple paradigms
400, 427
multivalued logic
20, 364
musical notation
15-17, 36, 38, 45, 201, 464, 548
MYCIN
157

N

name
29-31, 36, 38, 483, 542
alias 33, 39
clash 473
unique 33
natural deduction
301, 305, 307
natural language processing
157, 178, 180-181, 193, 414, 419, 442, 454
relationship to knowledge representation 178
necessity
287, 296, 299, 308, 341
negation
467
as failure 164, 261, 377-379, 531
as metalevel relation 164, 276
NETL
381
neural network
41, 365, 398-400, 428
hidden layer 400
nexus
63-64, 68-70, 72-74, 85-87, 132, 270, 500
non-Euclidean geometry
116
nondistributed middle term
29
nonmonotonic logic
19, 40, 250, 373, 376-379, 381-382, 388, 406
notational engineering
20
now
139, 140, 220, 250, 251
noêma
62
noêsis
62
nth-order type
525
nutrition
331, 333, 345

O

object
73, 206, 500
class 51, 169
eternal 64, 65, 72, 90
identifier 323, 385
lexical type 79
nonlexical type 79
instance 323, 326
methods 324
time-bound 217
timeless 217
Object Constraint Language (OCL)
436
object language
29, 113, 287, 316, 432, 435, 542
object-oriented
database 488
language 137
programming system (OOPS) 4, 8, 17, 27, 33, 169, 419, 423
observation
393
occurrent
71-77, 86, 89, 90, 118-120, 124, 212, 226, 263, 494, 497, 500, 505, 527, 530, 536, 537
ontological commitment
15, 134-136
ontologically neutral representation
492
ontology
alignment 409, 411-413, 493-497
axiomatized 493, 502
definition of 492
integration 53, 413, 419, 451, 494
mixed 495
prototype-based 361-363, 493, 495-496
refinement 100, 469, 496-497
sharing 408
terminological 493, 495, 497
open texture
361
open world
378
OPS5
157, 168, 199, 200
optimization
135, 159, 169, 201-202, 235, 241-244, 258, 260, 417, 535
origin relation (Orgn)
509
outer domain
385
overlap
105, 115

P

paradox of the heap (sorites)
353, 402, 404
parse tree
181
part relation (Part)
23-24, 181-182, 428, 505
partial compatibility
494, 495
partial ordering
97, 98, 100, 106, 107
participant
74, 89, 125, 209, 251, 270, 503, 506-511
participation
73, 500
participation count
431, 433
partitioned semantic network
279
partonomy
see meronomy
passion (thymos)
332, 337
path relation (Path)
509
patient relation (Ptnt)
49, 207-209, 448-449, 462, 510
Peirce normal form
289, 292, 343
Peirce-Peano notation
11, 19, 43
perception
62, 88, 285, 331-334, 364, 400
based on contrasts 68
persistence
142, 143, 247, 249, 251
perspective
61, 78, 88, 122, 130, 188, 354, 492
PERT chart
226, 428
Petri net
20, 178, 217, 218, 220-224, 324, 333, 337, 345-346, 428, 437, 465, 533-534, 536-537
active transition 225
acyclic 226
causality 218, 231, 235, 253-254, 261-263, 337, 537
colored 224, 226
computing with 235
decomposition into finite-state machines 258-259, 261, 335-336, 533-534
enabled transition 225
firing a transition 225
for clock 228
for producer-consumer 229, 232, 258
represented in logic 218
place 218, 251
theorems 231
token 220, 224, 251, 333
transition 218
phenomenal type
80-81, 87
phenomenology
62, 65-66, 400
physis
67, 69, 270
piece
89, 270
Planner
157
PlayNet
333
plurals
23-24, 47, 58, 101, 103, 108, 159, 210, 415
point-in-time relation (PTim)
46-47, 173-175, 207-208, 221, 268-269, 510
possession relation (Poss)
505
possibility
365
logical 296, 314, 542
objective 294, 296, 315, 542
relation (Psbl) 45, 281, 284, 294
subjective 294, 296, 314, 542
possible world
307-308, 312
criticism of 309, 338
Dunn's laws and facts 311-312, 317
Hintikka's model sets 310-311
Kripke's model structures 308, 310-311, 337-338
Leibniz's version 6, 307, 309
maximally consistent 310
postcondition
135, 177, 218, 221, 251, 325, 346
power set
101
PowerLoom
155
Praeclarum Theorema
292, 301, 343
pragmatics
293, 296, 395
pragmatism
288, 536
precondition
135, 177, 218, 221, 248-249, 251, 260, 325, 338, 346
predicate
468
predicate logic
9, 467, 469
prehension
63-65, 68-70, 72-73, 83, 85, 87-88, 270-271, 501-502
extrinsic 87
intrinsic 87
prehending or prehended entity 83
primitive
58, 84-86, 92-94, 100, 103, 110, 123, 128, 129, 468, 476, 482, 489, 495-496, 498-503, 522, 535
Leibniz's 69
type label 480
undefinable 76, 91, 93
principle of sufficient reason
143, 247-248, 250, 329
principles of knowledge representation
134-142
problem solving
413, 415
procedural attachment
149
procedural language
223
procedure
91, 94, 217, 220
process
73, 220, 501
branching 216
concurrent 216, 223
continuous 213, 216, 261
discrete 213, 216, 261
distinctions 216
distributed 217
equinormal 217
flat 217
forgetful 217
hierarchical 217
linear 216
local 217
memory bound 217
normal 217
predictable 216
recursively hierarchical 217
sequential 216, 223
surprising 216
synchronization 229
product
506
production rule
165
Prolog
19-20, 40-41, 138, 140-141, 157-165, 168-169, 199, 201, 203, 205, 377, 380-384, 404
proof
19-20, 41
property
469
proposition
64, 69, 70, 72, 73, 289, 501
as equivalence class of statements 289
expressed by sentence 289
Whitehead's definition 65
propositional attitude
295
propositional logic
12, 40, 467
protoIndoEuropean
342
prototype
361, 493, 495
psyche
192, 331-333, 345
public symbol
323
purpose
74, 501
relation (Purp) 273-274
see also axioms, for purpose
pushdown stack
235

Q

qualisign
396, 397, 400
qualitative reasoning
123, 253
quality
2
quantifier
10-11, 13, 425, 483
defined 281, 489
extended 474
Frege's 10
Peirce's 10
restricted 476
quantum mechanics
118, 120, 263, 267, 269, 356, 387, 445, 494
query
echo 422
graph 184, 426, 441
language 157
recursive 162
use of backtracking 157
question answering
184, 413, 421, 441
Quine's criterion
51-52, 135, 496
quote
175

R

randomness
348, 386
rational animal (zôon logon echon)
332
reason
74, 501
recipient relation (Rcpt)
86, 125, 510
recursive diagram
235
reference time
207, 211, 214, 215, 340
referent
424, 483
refinement
496
reflexivity
95, 308
relation
468-469
relation hierarchy
481, 487
relation label
481
relation type
478, 481, 502
relational database
156, 488
relativity
118, 263, 356
relevance logic
19, 290
Renaissance
4
representamen
192
representation
1, 76, 81, 178, 186-196
resolution theorem prover
246
resource
506-510
result relation (Rslt)
86, 449, 462, 510, 529
rete network
168
rheme
396
rhetoric
395
robot
187
web robot 330
role type
80-83, 86-89, 124, 127, 267, 502-512
action expressed by 212
as fluent 216
rule of inference
2, 7, 10, 13, 23, 25, 33, 40, 42, 45, 48, 276, 471
adding quantifiers 473
addition 472
conjunction 472
derived 22, 472
disjunctive syllogism 290, 472
dropping quantifiers 473
double negation 44-45, 306-307, 471-472, 540
existential generalization 473
generalized modus ponens 304-305
hypergeneralized modus ponens 306
hyperresolution 306
hypothetical syllogism 472
modus ponens 156, 303-305, 343, 382, 472
modus tollens 156, 472
Peirce's 279, 299, 301-307, 329, 343, 540
primitive 472
resolution 301
substituting equals for equals 32, 473
subtraction 472
universal instantiation 473
rule-based expert system
154, 156
Russell's paradox
102-103

S

salience
392, 410
schema
73, 74-75, 90-91, 130, 136, 143-144, 501
schematic anticipation
144
Scholastics
2, 4, 19, 26-28, 40, 62, 67, 277
scientific intelligence
395-398
scope
485, 486, 517
script
73-75, 77, 90-91, 216, 220, 293, 501
scripting language
141
second intentions
28
second-order type
30-32, 49
Secondness
60-68, 79, 88, 122-127, 389, 395-396, 401, 501-502, 529-530, 545
self-awareness
333
semantic distance
495
semantic factoring
497
semantic interpreter
181
semantic network
4, 19, 23, 40
semantics
39-41, 62, 178, 181, 275-276, 284, 299, 309-312, 395
semaphore
230
semi-open world
379
semiotics
81, 87, 394-402, 502
computational 402
Peirce's semeiotic 394
Saussure's semiology 394
set
at metalevel 112
compared with type 98
countable 101
infinite 101-104, 110
uncountable 101
set theory
90, 94, 97, 100-101
Boole's version 100, 103
Cantor's version 100
ontological extravagance of 101
paradoxes 102
von Neumann-Gödel-Bernays (VNGB) 101
Zermelo-Fraenkel (ZF) 101
seven liberal arts
153
SGML
204
sheet of assertion
488
SHRDLU
157, 160, 165, 168-169, 171, 200-204, 401
sign
81, 87-88, 188, 192-193, 394-404, 407, 502
signature
248, 478, 480
signified
395
signifier
395
Simula 67
137, 171, 190
simulation
132, 135, 141, 171, 199, 393
simulation language
137
single-assignment language
234
singleton graph
476
singleton set
100
sinsign
396, 397, 400
situatedness (keisthai)
56, 84, 86
situation
74, 206-207, 268-269, 272-275, 284-285, 287, 298, 310, 312, 320, 332, 337, 339, 342, 501
as pullback 313
meaningful 287, 288, 342
situation calculus
245, 246, 247, 249, 250
concurrent 251
finite-state machine 250
situation semantics
285, 297, 310
snapshot
119
SNePS
293
softbot
330
sort label
see type label
sorted logic
see typed logic
soundness
298
source
506
space
109
absolute 262
space-time
71, 76, 85, 103, 109, 110, 117, 119, 129
spatial form
92, 119, 130
specialization
95
species
2, 4, 29, 31-32
speech time
340
SQL
40, 50, 156-166, 168, 169, 171, 191, 200-205, 239, 249, 260, 378-379, 383, 384, 404
view 161, 377, 536
stage
71, 77, 86, 89, 119, 269, 500
star graph
476
start relation (Strt)
225, 510
state-transition diagram
217
statistics
253, 372, 391, 404, 496
Bayesian 365, 369
stored relation
469
stratified reasoning method
248
STRIPS
247, 248, 251, 260, 535
structure
74, 502
stylized natural language
2, 329, 406, 457, 461
Attempto Controlled English (ACE) 457-458, 465, 515-518
stylized English 139, 141, 177, 200, 203, 290, 346
subjective form
64, 65, 68, 70, 79, 83
subjective probability
365
subset
98, 100, 104
substrate (hypokeimenon)
87, 88, 507
subsumption
153, 155
subsumption architecture
187
subsymbolic process
400
success
214, 273
successor relation (Succ)
86, 207, 340, 505
sufficient reason, principle of
see principle of sufficient reason
sum
106
supplement
105
supremum
97
surprise
216, 235-236, 239
surrogate
32-35, 50, 134-135, 270, 323-324, 385, 526
swimlane
437, 438
syllogism
2-4, 6-8, 12-14, 19, 21, 24, 26, 29, 41, 48, 150
Barbara 3, 7-8, 48, 150-151
Celarent 3-4, 48, 155
Darii 3, 7-8, 12, 21, 24, 48, 150-151, 154
Ferio 3-4, 48, 155
middle term 12, 25, 29
premise 2
symbol
396, 400
symbol grounding
285
symbolic logic
2, 467
symmetry
95-96, 308
synset
412
system model
188, 190

T

tablature
464
Tao
56, 345
Tarski's solid geometry
110, 530
task
231
tautology
95
technology model
188, 190
temporal logic
4, 20, 27, 42, 46, 140, 215
tense
206-211, 214-215, 254, 339-340, 343
compound 214
simple 214
term
470
terminological logic
19
terminological reasoner (T-box)
7, 153, 154, 155
terminology
1-2, 153
thematic role
89, 207, 272, 506-510
theme relation (Thme)
35, 161, 182, 211, 280, 462-463, 510
theorem proving
135, 137, 139, 141-142
theory of reference
39
theory revision
248, 386, 388, 390, 404, 406
thesis-antithesis-synthesis
59
third-order type
32, 525
Thirdness
60-68, 70, 79, 88, 122, 124-127, 389, 395-396, 401, 501-502, 527-530, 545
thought (dianoia)
331, 332
thread
231
time
65, 71-73, 76-77, 90-91, 109, 114-115, 206
absolute 262
arrow of 117-119
explicit representation of 215
time dependencies
417
time line
115-116, 119
time stamp
220
timing diagram
226
topology
90, 130
mereotopology 123
point-set 123
Torah
542
transformation rule
281, 488
transformational grammar
293
transitive verb
337, 446-449, 462
transitivity
95, 165, 433-435, 474, 532
translating English to logic
161
Tree of Porphyry
4, 43, 56, 153, 331
triads
58-65, 68, 88, 125
trichotomy
67, 69, 88, 285, 395, 407, 502
formal 396
material 396
relational 396
trigger
66, 135, 161, 166-170, 184, 200, 204, 236, 240, 321, 325-326, 381-382, 517
tritone
17, 38, 200-201
truth function
468
truth maintenance
381, 541
truth table
8-9, 40-41, 47-48, 468, 541, 543
truth value
8-9, 20, 40, 47, 234, 254, 308-310, 315-317, 342, 364, 371-373, 467-469
Turing machine
94, 235, 292, 458, 466
two-valued logic
20, 41, 364, 372, 391
type
51, 97, 98, 478
type label
21, 424, 455, 473, 476, 480
typed logic
20-25, 30, 32, 42, 44, 50, 473

U

uncertainty
348, 365, 369, 390-391
unification
148, 168, 494, 497
Unified Modeling Language (UML)
218, 235, 435-436, 438, 459, 465
uniform resource locator (URL)
34, 385
uninterpreted logic
20
union
98, 100, 107
unique existential quantifier
475
Universal Characteristic
7
universal language
419
universal plan
338
universal quantifier
469
universal set
98, 100
universal theory
387
universe of discourse
295-296, 299, 316, 488
update anomaly
172

V

vagueness
348, 350, 352-353, 360, 365, 372, 402, 404
unwarranted quantification of 371
valence
478, 481
value restriction
153
variable
470
see also existential graph, line of identity
viewpoint
71, 76, 109
virtual reality
364, 365
virtual relation
469
vivid logic
see existential-conjunctive logic
Vorhandene
65, 401

W

wakefulness
333
will (boulêsis)
332, 337
word sense
410, 414, 443, 448, 449, 492
WordNet
412, 413, 459, 495, 497

Y

Yale shooting problem
249

Z

Zeno's paradox
116, 117
zooming
175
Zuhandene
65, 401

Special Symbols

absurd type ^
72-73, 100, 480-481, 498
conjunction
11, 47, 302, 467
denotation operator d
98-100, 384-385, 476
disjunction
11, 47, 100, 261, 302, 467
equivalence
11, 35-36, 47, 96-97, 467-468, 471
evaluation function F
308-310, 312, 337-338
exactly-one quantifier $!
106, 233, 456, 475
exclusive or &xor;
8-9, 47, 468
existential quantifier $
10-11, 13, 16-17, 51, 147, 276-277, 289, 360, 469, 483-484
formal parameter marker l
22, 24, 207, 272, 480-482
formula operator f
219, 222, 476
generic plural {*}
47, 161, 210, 211, 415
indexical marker #
49-50, 207-208, 220-221, 274, 279-283, 325-327, 339-340, 436, 483, 489
material implication
9, 467
nand &nand;
47, 468
negation ~
11, 47, 467-468
nor &nor;
47, 468
provability |-
298, 298, 305, 318, 344, 388
relation map r
435
semantic entailment |=
85, 285, 298, 310-313, 318, 389
unique existential quantifier $!!
475
universal quantifier "
10-11, 13, 27, 163-164, 360, 469, 474, 489
universal type T
68, 72, 474, 480, 498


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